Indian ocean

Water type: Ocean
Basin: Planet Earth
Climates: Subtropical, Tropical
Countries: Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Pakistan, Qatar, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Taiwan, Yemen

Perciformes - Perches

Centrarchiformes - Basses and sunfishes

Gadiformes - Cods

Spariformes - Breams and porgies

Anguilliformes - Eels and morays

Acanthuriformes - Surgeonfishes

Labriformes - Wrasses

Scombriformes - Mackerels

Carangiformes - Jacks

Tetraodontiformes - Puffers and filefishes

Mulliformes - Goatfishes

Scorpaeniformes - Mail-cheeked fishes

Mugiliformes - Mullets

Beloniformes - Needlefishes

Istiophoriformes - Barracudas

Clupeiformes - Herrings

Elopiformes - Tarpons and tenpounders

Trachiniformes - Weeverfishes

Blenniiformes - Blennies

Pleuronectiformes - Flatfishes

Gobiiformes - Gobies

Aulopiformes - Grinners

Beryciformes - Sawbellies

Holocentriformes - Squirrelfishes

Acropomatiformes - Oceanic basses

Kurtiformes - Nurseryfishes & Cardinalfishes

Syngnathiformes - Pipefishes and Seahorses

Lophiiformes - Anglerfishes

Lampriformes - Lamprids

Coelacanthiformes - Coelacanths

Myxiniformes - Hagfishes

Carcharhiniformes - Ground sharks

Lamniformes - Mackerel sharks

Orectolobiformes - Carpet shark

Hexanchiformes - Six-gill sharks

Squaliformes - Sleeper and dogfish sharks

Pristiophoriformes - Saw sharks

Gonorynchiformes - Milkfishes

Myliobatiformes - Stingrays

Ophidiiformes - Cusk-eels

Rhinopristiformes - Shovelnose rays

Torpediniformes - Electric rays

Notacanthiformes - Spiny eels

Squatiniformes - Angelsharks

The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or 19.8% of the water on surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use. Along its core, the Indian Ocean has some large marginal or regional seas such as the Arabian Sea, the Laccadive Sea, the Somali Sea, Bay of Bengal, and the Andaman Sea.

The Indian Ocean drainage basin covers 21,100,000 km2 (8,100,000 sq mi), virtually identical to that of the Pacific Ocean and half that of the Atlantic basin, or 30% of its ocean surface (compared to 15% for the Pacific).

The Indian Ocean drainage basin is divided into roughly 800 individual basins, half that of the Pacific, of which 50% are located in Asia, 30% in Africa, and 20% in Australasia.

The rivers of the Indian Ocean are shorter on average (740 km (460 mi)) than those of the other major oceans.

The largest rivers are (order 5) the Zambezi, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Indus, Jubba, and Murray rivers and the Shatt al-Arab, Wadi Ad Dawasir (a dried-out river system on the Arabian Peninsula) and Limpopo rivers.

After the breakup of East Gondwana and the formation of Himalayas, the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers flowed into the largest delta on the world – Bengal delta.

Marginal seas

Along the east coast of Africa, the Mozambique Channel separates Madagascar from mainland Africa, while the Sea of Zanj is located north of Madagascar.

On the northern coast of the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden is connected to the Red Sea by the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. In the Gulf of Aden, the Gulf of Tadjoura is located in Djibouti and the Guardafui Channel separates Socotra island from the Horn of Africa.

The northern end of the Red Sea terminates in the Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez.

The Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea without ship lock through the Suez Canal, which is accessible via the Red Sea.

The Arabian Sea is connected to the Persian Gulf by the Gulf of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz. In the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Bahrain separates Qatar from the Arabic Peninsula.

Along the west coast of India, the Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat are located in Gujarat in the northern end while the Laccadive Sea separates the Maldives from the southern tip of India.

The Bay of Bengal is off the east coast of India. The Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait separates Sri Lanka from India, while the Adam Bridge separates the two.

The Andaman Sea is located between the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Islands.

In Indonesia, the so-called Indonesian Seaway is composed of the Malacca, Sunda and Torres Straits.

The Gulf of Carpentaria of located on the Australian north coast, while the Great Australian Bight constitutes a large part of its southern coast.

Arabian Sea – 3.862 million km2
Bay of Bengal – 2.172 million km2
Andaman Sea – 797,700 km2
Laccadive Sea – 786,000 km2
Mozambique Channel – 700,000 km2
Timor Sea – 610,000 km2
Red Sea – 438,000 km2
Gulf of Aden – 410,000 km2
Persian Gulf – 251,000 km2
Flores Sea – 240,000 km2
Molucca Sea – 200,000 km2
Oman Sea – 181,000 km2
Great Australian Bight – 45,926 km2
Gulf of Aqaba – 239 km2
Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Suez

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