Europe

Europe is traditionally defined as one of seven continents. Physiographically, it is the northwestern peninsula of the larger landmass known as Eurasia (or the larger Afro-Eurasia); Asia occupies the eastern bulk of this continuous landmass and all share a common continental shelf. Тхе eastern frontier оф Еуропе is delineated by the Ural Mountains in Russia, which is the largest country by land area in the continent. The southeast boundary with Asia is not universally defined, but the modern definition is generally the Ural River or, less commonly, the Emba River. The boundary continues to the Caspian Sea, the crest of the Caucasus Mountains (or, less commonly, the river Kura in the Caucasus), and on to the Black Sea. The Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles conclude the Asian boundary. The Mediterranean Sea to the south separates Europe from Africa. The western boundary is the Atlantic Ocean. Iceland, though on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and nearer to Greenland (North America) than Mainland Europe, is generally included in Europe for cultural reasons and because it is over twice as close to mainland Europe as mainland North America. There is an ongoing debate on where the geographical center of Europe falls.

The most important rivers in Europe are Danube, Volga, Rhine, Elbe, Oder and Dnieper.

European rivers by length
The longest rivers in Europe, directly flowing into the World Ocean or Endorheic basins, with their approximate lengths:

  1. Volga – 3,690 km (2,290 mi)
  2. Danube – 2,860 km (1,780 mi)
  3. Ural – 2,428 km (1,509 mi)
  4. Dnieper – 2,290 km (1,420 mi)
  5. Don – 1,950 km (1,210 mi)
  6. Pechora – 1,809 km (1,124 mi)
  7. Kama – 1,805 km (1,122 mi)
  8. Oka – 1,500 km (930 mi)
  9. Dniester – 1,352 km (840 mi)
  10. Rhine – 1,236 km (768 mi)

European rivers by discharge
The rivers of Europe by average discharge, including only rivers directly flowing into the World Ocean or Endorheic basins:

  1. Volga – 8,087 m³/s (largest river in Eastern Europe)
  2. Danube – 6,450 m³/s (largest river in Central Europe)
  3. Pechora – 4,380m³/s
  4. Northern Dvina – 3,330m³/s
  5. Neva – 2,490 m³/s
  6. Rhine – 2,315 m³/s) (largest river in Western Europe)
  7. Rhône – 1,900 m³/s (largest river in France)
  8. Dnieper – 1,700 m³/s
  9. Po – 1,460 m³/s (largest river in Italy)
  10. Vistula – 1,080 m³/s (largest river in Poland)

Perciformes - Perches

Salmoniformes - Salmons and Trouts

Esociformes - Pikes

Siluriformes - Catfishes

Centrarchiformes - Basses and sunfishes

Cypriniformes - Carps

Cichliformes - Cichlids

Acipenseriformes - Sturgeons and Paddlefish

Gadiformes - Cods

Scorpaeniformes - Mail-cheeked fishes

Mugiliformes - Mullets

Clupeiformes - Herrings

Anguilliformes - Eels and morays

Elopiformes - Tarpons and tenpounders

Moroniformes - Temperate basses

Blenniiformes - Blennies

Gobiiformes - Gobies

Gasterosteiformes - Sticklebacks

Syngnathiformes - Pipefishes and Seahorses

Cyprinodontiformes - Toothcarps

Atheriniformes - Silversides

Osmeriformes - Smelts

Carcharhiniformes - Ground sharks

Petromyzontiformes - Lampreys

Perciformes - Perches

Salmoniformes - Salmons and Trouts

Centrarchiformes - Basses and sunfishes

Cypriniformes - Carps

Acipenseriformes - Sturgeons and Paddlefish

Gadiformes - Cods

Spariformes - Breams and porgies

Zeiformes - Dories

Mugiliformes - Mullets

Carangiformes - Jacks

Labriformes - Wrasses

Scorpaeniformes - Mail-cheeked fishes

Beloniformes - Needlefishes

Clupeiformes - Herrings

Acanthuriformes - Surgeonfishes

Tetraodontiformes - Puffers and filefishes

Scombriformes - Mackerels

Anguilliformes - Eels and morays

Istiophoriformes - Barracudas

Moroniformes - Temperate basses

Mulliformes - Goatfishes

Elopiformes - Tarpons and tenpounders

Blenniiformes - Blennies

Pleuronectiformes - Flatfishes

Trachiniformes - Weeverfishes

Gobiiformes - Gobies

Aulopiformes - Grinners

Gasterosteiformes - Sticklebacks

Beryciformes - Sawbellies

Acropomatiformes - Oceanic basses

Lampriformes - Lamprids

Lophiiformes - Anglerfishes

Syngnathiformes - Pipefishes and Seahorses

Kurtiformes - Nurseryfishes & Cardinalfishes

Dactylopteriformes - Flying gurnards

Atheriniformes - Silversides

Cyprinodontiformes - Toothcarps

Argentiniformes - Marine smelts

Osmeriformes - Smelts

Myxiniformes - Hagfishes

Callionymiformes - Dragonets

Lamniformes - Mackerel sharks

Carcharhiniformes - Ground sharks

Orectolobiformes - Carpet shark

Hexanchiformes - Six-gill sharks

Squaliformes - Sleeper and dogfish sharks

Chimaeriformes - Chimaeras

Myliobatiformes - Stingrays

Rajiformes - Skates and rays

Ophidiiformes - Cusk-eels

Torpediniformes - Electric rays

Rhinopristiformes - Shovelnose rays

Saccopharyngiformes - Swallowers and Gulpers

Myctophiformes - Lanternfishes

Stylephoriformes - Tube-eyes

Petromyzontiformes - Lampreys

Notacanthiformes - Spiny eels

Squatiniformes - Angelsharks

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